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Ale, axes, serious beards.
The Dwarves of Azeroth are hard drinking explorers, miners and fighters with an affinity for guns and things that explode. They're organized into various clans, with the Ironforge mountain Dwarves being the clan that all players are born into. Other prominent ones include the Wildhammer clan, which make their home in the Hinterlands.
The dwarves also host the Explorer's Guild, an organization that looks into uncovering mysteries buried deep beneath Azeroth and beyond. Dwarves have a reputation for being greedy for underground treasure, and are far more comfortable living underground than above it. Much of Dwarven history is shadowed in mystery, but the Explorer's Guild seeks to discover more about the origins of their race as created by the ancient Titans. In terms of their character, Dwarves tend to believe that their race is superior to others, but they have a special kinship to Gnomes thanks to their common ancestry and interest in engineering.
Dwarves can play as Hunters, Paladins, Priests, Warriors and Rogues. Their racial mount is the giant ram, and their capital city is the underground fortress of Ironforge, located in the snowy mountains of Dun Morogh in central Azreoth. The great forge in the center of the city highlights the importance of mining and blacksmithing in Dwarven culture. Their racial abilities are stoneform - a spell that increases their armor and renders them immune to poison, bleeding and disease for a short period - gun specialization, frost resistance and treasure finding.
Stoneform is a surprisingly useful ability for any class, but most importantly for warriors and paladins that can occasionally use a quick armor boost, and in situations in which a deadly poison, bleed or disease strikes them. When combined with a stoneshield potion, the stoneform can give a mitigation boost that allows healers time to catch up with the damage being inflicted by a nasty boss-monster.
The gun specialization is a great boon to Hunters, who can always use more critical hit percentage, as it increases both their ability with their weapon and that of their pet. This makes the Dwarf one of the better choices for an Alliance Hunter. Treasure finding can be useful while you're leveling, as it ensures that you never miss chests - and certain quest items - when you're tromping about the world.
Dwarves also have a slightly higher starting stamina than any other Alliance class, making them yet a better choice for players interested in tanking.
A collection of overviews of the various races in World of Warcraft.